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NDI BACKGROUND PAPER 2: Polar Code and other measures to improve safety of shipping in the Arctic

Summary: The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters, better known as the “Polar Code”, came into force on 1 January 2017 to improve safety for ship operations in remote waters of the polar regions. It was developed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as a legally binding international framework that builds on existing mandatory regulations set by IMO …

NDI BACKGROUND PAPER 1: Marine Plastic Debris Pollution in the Russian Arctic

Summary: This paper discusses marine plastic debris pollution, particularly the accumulation of microplastics in the oceans, which is one of the most significant environmental problems of our time both globally and in the Russian Arctic. Microplastics are a term used to describe the vast volume of microscopic plastic debris currently found throughout the World Ocean and its coastlines. Primary microplastics …